Physically induced deterioration is caused by freeze-thaw loads, non-uniform volume changes, temperature gradients, abrasion, erosion or cavitation. Chemically induced deterioration consists of carbonation, corrosion of steel reinforcement, attacks of sulfates and acids, or alkali-aggregates reactions. Many modern buildings created during the 20th century were made of concrete and, in recent years, the deterioration of concrete has begun. The main reason for the deterioration of concrete is corrosion, and there are two main categories of concrete corrosion: general carbonation corrosion and chloride ion pitting corrosion.
Exposure to carbonation to reinforcing structures for extended periods can cause widespread cracking. Exposure to chloride ions from water leaking into concrete can cause pitting corrosion and deterioration. Salt crystallization is a common reason why buildings made of stone suffer deterioration. Salt crystallization tends to affect more porous stones.
Usually, salt enters the stone through the air and into the pores, where it later crystallizes. It causes the stone to deteriorate, usually to a fine powder. Salt is often the result of mixing air pollutants and stone. It also comes from groundwater, sea spray, chemical cleaners, and salt used to thaw.
Another element that can lead to deterioration is frost. Buildings made of stone in areas where buildings are exposed to sub-zero temperatures, as well as precipitation, are susceptible to this damage. Frost damages stones with small pores more than those with larger pores. It is believed that many buildings built in the northern part of the United States will suffer frost damage, as many of these buildings are created from frost-susceptible stone.
When we talk about these issues, humans are the main cause of deterioration in buildings. Speaking of one by one, the lack of routine cleaning and maintenance is a cause of the deterioration of the building. Because most of the sites that we can see after finishing their daily work, do not clean the site. Sometimes, when we come the next day, we can't even walk on the site.
Because of that, the dangers are everywhere on the site. Sometimes, when the customer comes to check if the works are underway that day, all workers clean the site %26 keep the site looking perfect. But when we go the next day, the place is not clean. Because they did not continue their work, there was no special plan to clean the site, so this problem will primarily cause the building.
Another thing is not to employ specialists to clean special accessories and equipment. This means that some materials and things cannot be cleaned for the normal cleaning worker. We need to provide special people for cleaning. If we don't provide special workers for this, it will be a problem for the building.
Another thing is that we need to use correct cleaning materials and techniques for a building. Because most site supervisors aren't prepared for these cleanup things. Therefore, the worker does not use correct materials and equipment. Sometimes it also deteriorates the building.
The thing is that before starting the project we have to inform or we have to advise the workers on how to keep the site clean when you finish the job. Then we can avoid this cause. The other thing we can see is ignorance of the causes of deterioration and decay. It means that some workers don't know the effect of things like humidity, fire, etc.
Because most of the low %26 other helpers are not well-educated people. They only know the basics of their professions. So they work without any risk. But some are very ignorant people, which means they don't care about those rules% 26 things.
They do what they like to do. The thing is that the site administrator or site supervisor must handle these issues. Another thing we can see is poor planning for proper maintenance. In some of the sites we can see poor planning throughout the project.
Because when we start a project we need to have a plan for the entire project and after we finish the project we need to have a plan for maintenance. Most people don't have any plans after the project. Why do we say this is an example when we take an elevator. We have to have kept it every 14 months after it was fixed.
Because when the elevator is running, the elevator cables are removed. So when we don't maintain the elevators again, the dangers are overcoming. Similarly, we need to have proper maintenance of buildings, as we need to paint the house every 6 months or 1 year, we need to check the plumbing works,% 26, we need to check the electrical works, etc. When we talk about atmospheric humidity 26%, they can also be harmful to the building% 26% can deteriorate the building.
Speaking of moisture, penetration of external tissue or through the constructions of the ground floor that give moisture, which can create a suitable condition for the growth and attack of fungi. Therefore, it will be detrimental to foundations% 26% construction materials. So what we can do is keep building materials in a dry state, reduce deterioration in the building. Sometimes faulty pipes can also be detrimental to construction.
Because sometimes, when plumbing works are made of copper or steel, soil chemicals react with pipes. Because the bearing capacity of the soil is reduced by 26%, it can deteriorate the structure of the building and the foundation. We also know when leaks occur in underground pipes that also cause the structure of the building. When we talk about atmospheric problems (wind, rain, 26%, sun) occur mainly to the reaction of the structural shape of the building.
It can cause mainly for the structure and mainly for external finishes. Because when rain falls, it hits the outer walls and moisture, water will affect the wall. The other thing is in foreign counties, the weather condition is cold and snowy. So, this kind of if the type is the main cause of the building and the roof structure.
Considering more of building maintenance, we can categorize it as cyclical, planned and reactive maintenance. Cyclical maintenance begins with the daily routine and is developed with a daily, weekly, monthly, yearly and every 5 years schedule. It means that cyclical maintenance is carried out to preserve the facades of the building and ensure that the fixtures and accessories remain in good condition. For every five years, the architect and routine surveyor are responsible for verifying the defect of the building.
The types of cyclical maintenance carried out under local authority. For surveyors and architects have to look for things and check, such as replacing pipes and water tanks, replacing booster and transfer pumps, cleaning all voids %26 places, checking electrical installations, checking if there is a sign of deterioration in the building, cleaning gutters, etc. In addition, if the customer wishes, we can do things like repair and redecorate, rewire, re-roofing, etc. Depending on the nature of maintenance, cyclical maintenance can be divided into two categories, such as daily maintenance and maintenance, including builder's work.
Talking about daily maintenance means things that the building owner can do without help or without any workers employed on the outside. Because when the contractor delivers the building, we need to have simple daily maintenance, such as cleaning gutters and leaves, cleaning downspouts and drainage, eliminating masonry plant growth, checking wood if insect attacks, checking windows and doors, etc. Talking about maintenance, including the work of the builder, means that the builder has to annually carry out such works, including the replacement of broken tiles, gutters, downpipes; cleaning air conditioning systems, checking all fire detection systems, etc. This is what we need to do under cyclical maintenance.
I mentioned earlier that technology is something very important in our daily lives. In this report, I analyze the causes of the deterioration of buildings and their services. Construction requires many skills in planning, design and construction, and the selection and use of many materials and techniques. After the building is finished, it must meet various requirements, withstand the rigors of the weather, and at the same time it is expected to last for many years, preferably with minimal maintenance.
It is not surprising that defects and failures occur frequently. Consideration should be given, therefore, at each stage of the construction process, ways to reduce the incidence of defects and prolong the durability of the building. . .