Physically induced deterioration is caused by freeze-thaw loads, non-uniform volume changes, temperature gradients, abrasion, erosion or cavitation. Chemically induced deterioration consists of carbonation, corrosion of steel reinforcement, attacks of sulfates and acids, or alkali-aggregates reactions. Many modern buildings created during the 20th century were made of concrete and, in recent years, the deterioration of concrete has begun. The main reason for the deterioration of concrete is corrosion, and there are two main categories of concrete corrosion: general carbonation corrosion and chloride ion pitting corrosion. Exposure to carbonation to reinforcing structures for extended periods can cause widespread cracking.
Exposure to chloride ions from water leaking into concrete can cause pitting corrosion and deterioration. Salt crystallization is a common reason why buildings made of stone suffer deterioration. Salt crystallization tends to affect more porous stones. Usually, salt enters the stone through the air and into the pores, where it later crystallizes.
It causes the stone to deteriorate, usually to a fine powder. Salt is often the result of mixing air pollutants and stone. It also comes from groundwater, sea spray, chemical cleaners, and salt used to thaw. Another element that can lead to deterioration is frost. Buildings made of stone in areas where buildings are exposed to sub-zero temperatures, as well as precipitation, are susceptible to this damage.
Frost damages stones with small pores more than those with larger pores. It is believed that many buildings built in the northern part of the United States will suffer frost damage, as many of these buildings are created from frost-susceptible stone. When we talk about these issues, humans are the main cause of deterioration in buildings. Speaking of one by one, the lack of routine cleaning and maintenance is a cause of the deterioration of the building. Because most of the sites that we can see after finishing their daily work do not clean the site.
Sometimes when we come the next day we can't even walk on the site. Because they did not continue their work there was no special plan to clean the site so this problem will primarily cause the building. Another thing is not to employ specialists to clean special accessories and equipment. This means that some materials and things cannot be cleaned for the normal cleaning worker. We need to provide special people for cleaning.
If we don't provide special workers for this it will be a problem for the building. Another thing is that we need to use correct cleaning materials and techniques for a building. Because most site supervisors aren't prepared for these cleanup things. Therefore, the worker does not use correct materials and equipment. Sometimes it also deteriorates the building. The thing is that before starting the project we have to inform or we have to advise the workers on how to keep the site clean when you finish the job.
Then we can avoid this cause. The other thing we can see is ignorance of the causes of deterioration and decay. It means that some workers don't know the effect of things like humidity, fire etc. Because most of the low & other helpers are not well-educated people they only know the basics of their professions so they work without any risk. But some are very ignorant people which means they don't care about those rules & things. They do what they like to do.
The thing is that the site administrator or site supervisor must handle these issues. Another thing we can see is poor planning for proper maintenance. In some of the sites we can see poor planning throughout the project because when we start a project we need to have a plan for the entire project and after we finish the project we need to have a plan for maintenance. Most people don't have any plans after the project why do we say this is an example when we take an elevator We have to have kept it every 14 months after it was fixed because when the elevator is running the elevator cables are removed so when we don't maintain the elevators again dangers are overcoming. Similarly we need to have proper maintenance of buildings as we need to paint the house every 6 months or 1 year we need to check plumbing works &%2C we need to check electrical works etc when we talk about atmospheric humidity 26% they can also be harmful to building &% can deteriorate building. Speaking of moisture penetration of external tissue or through constructions of ground floor that give moisture which can create suitable condition for growth & attack of fungi therefore it will be detrimental foundations & construction materials so what we can do is keep building materials in dry state reduce deterioration in building. Sometimes faulty pipes can also be detrimental construction because sometimes when plumbing works are made copper or steel soil chemicals react with pipes because bearing capacity soil reduced 26% it can deteriorate structure building & foundation. We also know when leaks occur underground pipes also cause structure building when talk about atmospheric problems wind rain 26% sun occur mainly reaction structural shape building it can cause mainly structure & mainly external finishes because when rain falls it hits outer walls & moisture water will affect wall. The other thing in foreign counties weather condition cold & snowy so this kind if type main cause building & roof structure considering more building.